Fiber to the Home technology is also called FTTH broadband. Fiber Internet technology is the best solution to meet the higher demand for internet data services at customer end. It can provide very high bandwidth with low cost. It works on Passive Optical Network technology.
FITL (Fiber in the Loop)
It is the core technology in which Optical Line Terminal or Optical Network Unit (OLT or ONU) is installed at service provider’s telephone exchange. OLT works like a telephone exchange for Optical fiber connections. Optical Network Terminal is installed at customer end. Both OLT and ONT are connected through a passive optical network. Hence this technology is also known as the passive optical network (PON). FTTL are classified in many types
Fiber to the Curb (FTTC)
In this architecture, Optical Network Unit is installed in the curb near to subscribers home. The Copper cable is used between the Optical Network Unit and customer’s home.
Fiber to the Building (FTTB)
In this architecture, Optical Network Unit is installed in the building near to subscribers home. The Copper cable is used between the Optical Network Unit and customer’s home.
Fiber to the Home (FTTH)
In this architecture, Optical Network Unit (ONT) is installed at the subscriber’s home. The Optical fiber cable (OF Cable) is extended up to subscriber’s Home to provide Internet services.
FTTH Broadband service Elements
FTTH works on passive optical network technology. Mainly three elements are used to provide high-speed internet to customers.
Optical Line Terminal (ONT)
It is also known as Customer premises equipment (CPE). At subscriber end, Optical network terminal is installed. It is used for authentication purpose. It also converts Optical signal to Ethernet in downstream and converts Ethernet to Optical for the upstream side. Optical network terminal is connected to Optical Line Terminal through OF cable. Optical line terminal is installed at service provider’s central office.
Optical Line Terminal (OLT)
It is installed at Internet service provider’s central office or location. It is connected to Optical network terminal through optical fiber line. One OLT can be connected up to 64 ONTs with the help of splitters.
Optical power Splitters
Splitters are used to splits the optical signals bandwidth into many. Splitter comes in 1X4, 1X8, 1X16, 1X32 and 1X64 configurations. It’s a passive device means no external power is required to run it.
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Fiber broadband Advantages
High-speed internet connections may be possible at customer premises. It can provide speed up to 100 Mbps to a subscriber.
It has a very High Range which is up to 20km from the Service provider’s exchange.
A Little loss of signal as compared to other wired internet technologies like ADSL Broadband, Cable broadband, etc.
Low maintenance cost
Different type of services like Voice, Video, Data, High-speed Internet, VoIP, IPTV, etc. can be accessed through a single connection.
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The user gets dedicated Optical cable line from the telephone exchange; it means that internet speed is not shared with other subscribers. In most wireless connections like Wi-Fi, 3G, 4G internet, WiMAX, etc. bandwidth is shared among the users in the same cell.